Sunday, March 11, 2007

Propaganda: study question



Source: www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/

Explain one of the seven propaganda devices we discussed in class, support your analysis with examples and evaluate the effectiveness of the device in relation to the examples given.

18 comments:

Shamsa said...

Plain Folks is one of the seven propaganda devices that is used to change people's minds and believes that is used daily in politics, religion, campaigns, marketing and more. It been around for centuries but if first appeared and got known in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV. Propaganda has been used mainly in wars to brain wash people and divert them from the truth and reality. One of the most famous uses of propaganda is when It's been used by Hitler in 1933 who appointed Joseph Goebbels as Minister for Propaganda.

The device is basically used by politics and rich people who want to get people's good side by convincing them that they are one of them. For an example, a multi-millionaire politician who wants to win people's votes might consider wearing a T-shirt and blue jeans instead of Armani suit, or might consider talking or giving speeches in simple English, using simple grammar and words instead of high, Harvard vocabulary.

One of the main examples is when Bill Clinton ate at Mac Donald's and declared enjoying reading trashy spy novels. Another good example is when Jimmy Carter showed up as a modest peanut farmer and expanded his family's business in Plains. In the UAE, we can see that when sheikhs dress like humble Bedouins when they go to the deserts or farms, or when they kiss babies on the cheeks.

There are people, especially who are not well educated, might fall for this device however they might not fall for it every time especially if they saw every political do the same. Now people are becoming more aware of this device because everyone is doing it, starting from politics to movie stars.

Heba said...

Glittering Generality

Through well choice of emotionally appealing words or phrases, the glittering generality device links a person or an idea to a positive symbol. This technique aims to get the audience to accept a person or idea without examination of the reason. In fact, it is so attractive that the audience doesn't challenge its true meaning.

I think glittering generality device had and still have a strong effect and influence by directing people's thoughts because the true message is covered under a positive meaning and it could require a specialist to break it into pieces and discover the message behind.

Many words like freedom, democracy, honor, motherhood and desire of peace are agreed among people all over the world. However, these words could not represent the reality of a character or matter.

Glittering generality is hard to counter, but I will list few political examples. When George W. Bush, the President of the United States, described the Israel Minister, Ireal Sharon the Man of Peace! It was very clear that he was supporting Sharon, but I am not sure if he was successful for using that term. I know that this didn't work well especially in the Middle East. Another example is very obvious when Israel tries to justify its terrorism actions against Palestine; it claims to be "freedom fighter".

During the Gulf War, Iraq President Saddam Husain created the term Mother of all Battles for the bloody conflict that he caused by invading Kuwait, fomenting the Gulf War. It was very similar to what U.S in early 1991 did when it used the term Dessert Storm to simplify its engagement in the war.

In another hand, glittering generality are used to reward people's and their achievements in their societies or internationally. A very popular example is Diana, the Princess of Wales who was called the Queen of Hearts for a much loved young woman who died too soon.

In conclusion, I believe that the definition of glittering generality is absolutely the opposite of the meaning of name calling.

Heba

Hanan Al Muhairi said...

Transfer
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According to my research in wikipedia and other online websites; propaganda techniques are the methods and approaches used to spread ideas that could be of a cause that is a political, commercial, religious, or civil cause. They are used to manipulate the readers' or viewers' reason and emotions in order to persuade the people to believe in something or someone, buy an item, or vote a certain way.

Transfer is one of the propaganda devices that are used by propagandist over authority in order to authorize and approval of something we respect and revere to something they would have us believe and accept. In this technique, an attempt is made to transfer the status of a positive symbol to a person or an idea.

In the Transfer device, symbols are always used. For example, the crescent represents Islam, the cross represents the Christian church and the flag represents the nation. Those symbols blend emotions.

Transfer is first used by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938. Transfer is often used in politics and during wartime. Transfer is usually used in used in positive ways by linking an item to something the subject respects or enjoys, therefore positive feelings can be generated for it. However, in politics, transfer is most often used to transfer blame or bad feelings from one politician to another of his friends or party members, or even to the party itself.

An example of common use of this technique in America is for the President to be filmed or photographed in front of the American flag.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Bill_Clinton.jpg
Portrait of Bill Clinton, the American flag placed nonchalantly in the background.

I think we have that same thing in the UAE, check the pictures below:

http://www.uae-embassy.com/zayed_files/image005.jpg
http://www.42international.com/images/Sheikh%20Mohammed.jpg

Another example is using the American flag as a backdrop for a political event makes the implication that the event is patriotic in the best interest of the U.S.

N said...

Bandwagon:

Bandwagon is one of the seven main propaganda techniques identified by the Institute of Propaganda Analysis in 1938. It is also one of the most common techniques in both wartime and peacetime and plays an important part in the modern advertising. Propagandists use this technique to persuade the audience to follow the winning side which the crowd follow and force them to join the mass movement.
Nowadays, this technique works successfully because few people would like to be left behind by convincing them that if they didn't join the crowd they will be left out. The theme of this device is "Everybody's doing it" which shows that all the members of the group are doing it, therefore, we must follow them without examining the evidences "Jump on the bandwagon." The advertiser and persuader appeals to common
desire to follow a group by filling stadium, marching a million of men in a celebrations, employing symbols, colors, music and movement to contribute to the cause. But we should ask ourselves questions when confronted with this technique. What is the advisers program? What is the evidence for and against it? Even others are supporting it, why should I? Does the program serve my interest?

Bandwagon is a technique of propaganda where you should get enough information to defend your self before joining in.

Examples:
1. "Four out of five use this toothpaste."

Evaluation:
It means that most people are using this toothpaste and it has good results. The receiver’s reaction is that he still doesn't know about it which makes him fear that he misses something good and immediately follows the crowd.

Example:
2. "Mitsubishi is the fastest growing car maker."

Evaluation:
This means that Mitsubishi is preferred by most people around the world and according to common sense, because it is the best it is the fastest growing car maker and vice versa. The audiences' reaction is to follow the crowd and be equal with the rest of the group.

Example:
3. "Everybody's buying Pokemon."

Evaluation:
This implies that if you are not buying Pokemon you are not aware about the latest trends which made the people, ignoring their age and interests, to acquire it only for the sake of joining others even if it lakes evidence.

Example:
4."You are either with us, or against us."

Evaluation:
This is one the of the most used slogans which tackles an emotional issue. The audience would prefer to be with the issue raised instead of being against it which gives a negative idea about the audience. By this they follow the group even if deeply they were against it.

Example:
5. "Always Coca Cola."

Evaluation:
This might not be a very good example but this is very early step of bandwagon. It encourages people to drink Coca Cola and increases number of drinkers. The receiver will follow the crowd so he doesn't feel abnormal ignoring side effects of the drink.


Naeema Abdullah
200221773

fatma_alshaibani said...

Transfer is often used in politics and during wartime. It lets a certain group of people focus on a certain subject in the same way as they view another item; it lets them connect the two things together mentality. This technique can be used to show the negative feelings from one object to another and it also can be used in a positive way. It combines the two things (the negative feelings and the positive feelings), it sustains you respect and enjoy the process.

For example, a Christian politic visited a mousq but before he entered, he listened carefully to the spokesman who explains how to do the Islamic wadooa, and then did it.

Another example is when Bill Clinton went to Palestine – Alquds, to the Jewish people and cried on the Buraq wall with the rest of them. Bill Clinton went to show his support to them and let them feel like he is on their side on the argument between Israel and Palestine people.

This technique can be used in political purposes. It can be used to make a negative feeling flow from one person to another.

In politics, transfer is most often used to transfer blame or bad feelings from one politician to another affecting his friends or party members, or even to the party itself. For example; some candidates reminded the press about Bill Clinton affair with Monica Lewinsky where the main target of this was competing Bill Clinton in the election.

Zainab said...

Bandwagon:

Bandwagon is one of the seven main propaganda techniques, which is used to convince the audience to follow the crowd. The establishment for Propaganda analysis has known it in 1928. It also one of the most common techniques in both period of war and peacetime and plays an essential part in modern advertising. This technique effort to sell something based upon the nation that everyone is buying or believing it. For example the radio ad that says “Jackson Ford is the Number One Ford Dealership in the Southeast Region”

Evaluation:
This type of advertisement means that this car dealership is the best dealership. The consumers are likely to combine “number one” with “the best,” although these expressions can be misleading.

This device creates the impression of general support and it emphasizes the human wish to be on the winning side. In other words it’s trying to convince the subject that one side is the winning side because most people have joined it. On the other hand, in modern propaganda, bandwagon has taken a new twist that since everybody else is doing it, so people who don’t do it they will be left out. This is the opposite type of the other bandwagon but usually have the same results.

There is another good example for Bandwagon which is “Zippo the grand old lighter that made right here in the good old U.S. of A.”

Evaluation:
This ad means that Zippo brand cigarette lighters are the American standard, such as; Marlboro and the Dallas Cowboys. The Zippo company’s warrant is this: If everyone else is buying this brand, then we all should too which tell us that we need a better reason that peer pressure or popularity.


Zainab Al Rahma
200122076

Zainab said...

Bandwagon:

Bandwagon is one of the seven main propaganda techniques, which is used to convince the audience to follow the crowd. The establishment for Propaganda analysis has known it in 1928. It also one of the most common techniques in both period of war and peacetime and plays an essential part in modern advertising. This technique effort to sell something based upon the nation that everyone is buying or believing it.
For example the radio ad that says “Jackson Ford is the Number One Ford Dealership in the Southeast Region”

Evaluation:
This type of advertisement means that this car dealership is the best dealership. The consumers are likely to combine “number one” with “the best,” although these expressions can be misleading.

This device creates the impression of general support and it emphasizes the human wish to be on the winning side. In other words it’s trying to convince the subject that one side is the winning side because most people have joined it. On the other hand, in modern propaganda, bandwagon has taken a new twist that since everybody else is doing it, so people who don’t do it they will be left out. This is the opposite type of the other bandwagon but usually have the same results.
There is another good example for Bandwagon which is “Zippo the grand old lighter that made right here in the good old U.S. of A.”

Evaluation:
This ad means that Zippo brand cigarette lighters are the American standard, such as; Marlboro and the Dallas Cowboys. The Zippo company’s warrant is this: If everyone else is buying this brand, then we all should too which tell us that we need a better reason that peer pressure or popularity.


Zainab Al Rahma
200122076

Anonymous said...

Propaganda is the act of conveying a message in order to support and spread a particular opinion or point of view, using both the intellect and the emotions of the audience. It is used in politics, advertising, and public relations. There are seven types of propaganda but in my opinion fear is the most effective.

Fear being a primary and vital emotion in humans it is often used by media practitioners to extort maximum effect in their messages. They usually do that by incorporating phobias that are relevant to their messages like death, terrorism, and many others. The reasons for this is due to the survival instinct in humans which would make them listen to the message in order to survive or prevent and attack.

There are many examples where fear was used. For example the United States justifyed their invasion of the Iraq by saying that Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction. Another example is speed awareness advertisements; where they show you how speed could kill, or even worse make you live with a disability.

Lamees Al Hajri

Anonymous said...

Laila said…
Transfer:

It’s one of the propaganda devices, and it’s about one being seen with credible and trusted people, so that one can be considered by the public as credible and trusted, and belongs to the same group, bearing in mind that one should show his uniqueness and at the same time shouldn’t push the other party down.

Examples:

In the elections for the national council in the UAE, a person with a lot of contacts shows up with one of the credible and trusted candidates, helping him out to accumulate the highest possible number of votes, and appearing with him in the press doing so. Later on the candidate joins the national council.

Effectiveness:

I guess that this device is very effective with the example given. People would think the helper is as credible and trustworthy as the candidate. It also shows that the helper might be better in some ways than the candidate in offering all the contacts to the service of the candidate. The federal figure admires the helper later on, because with his help, he was offered a seat in the national council. The helper here looks trustworthy, credible, helping, not jealous, and loving, which boosts his shares up in the society.

Anonymous said...

Bandwagon is one of the major propaganda techniques known by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938.

Bandwagon propaganda is, basically, trying to persuade the subject that one side is the winning side, because more people have joined it. The subject is meant to believe that since so many people have joined, that success is predictable and overcome impossible. Since the normal person always wants to be on the winning side, he or she is forced to join in.

In my opinion; bandwagon technique is used by all of us, especially now, it become as a habit with the people in the society. People need to be more educated to protect them selves following the others. They should ask and investigate to tackle this technique.

Bandwagon and "inevitable-victory" appeals challenge to persuade the target viewers to join and take the way of implement that "everyone else is taking."
• Inevitable victory: request those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those already or at least in part on the bandwagon are not worrying that staying aboard is their best course of action.
• Join the crowd: This technique supports people's natural wish to be on the winning side. This technique is used to persuade the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible movement and it is the best interest to join.

I have used these web sites to do my assignment:

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111500/proptech.htm
http://www.answers.com/topic/propaganda-2

Mai Kamali
200122465

Anonymous said...

Bandwagon...

Bandwagon is one of the propaganda techniques, and bandwagon is a technique designed to persuade targeted audience to join or be part of or do the same thing.
Technically, bandwagon is a wagon used to transport musicians in a parade, the phrase “jump on the bandwagon” was founded the first time in America when a politician jumped on a clown’s wagon in a parade for campaigning. And so all other politicians jumped on the bandwagon with him because they saw that he seemed to be winning in the election and they all wanted to be on the winner’s side without taking into consideration what they allied themselves with.

Bandwagon is a very effective mean of persuasion, seeing the large sum of people who always want to be among the best or up to date with the latest trend, the weakness in this group of people is that they don’t conceder the reason of why they are following the trend or product, their main focus is on the yearning to be among all the rest who seem to be successful. So they simply “jump on the bandwagon”.

Example:
I once so an add for a mobile company on TV, the slogan was “everyone is doing it, you should to”

The advertisement is simply persuading people to join in and subscribe to the mobile company, because misleads people that everyone is getting in on it and showing them in some way that they are the best.

Fatma Mansoor

Anonymous said...

Bandwagon...

Bandwagon is one of the propaganda techniques, and bandwagon is a technique designed to persuade targeted audience to join or be part of or do the same thing.
Technically, bandwagon is a wagon used to transport musicians in a parade, the phrase “jump on the bandwagon” was founded the first time in America when a politician jumped on a clown’s wagon in a parade for campaigning. And so all other politicians jumped on the bandwagon with him because they saw that he seemed to be winning in the election and they all wanted to be on the winner’s side without taking into consideration what they allied themselves with.

Bandwagon is a very effective mean of persuasion, seeing the large sum of people who always want to be among the best or up to date with the latest trend, the weakness in this group of people is that they don’t conceder the reason of why they are following the trend or product, their main focus is on the yearning to be among all the rest who seem to be successful. So they simply “jump on the bandwagon”.

Example:
I once so an add for a mobile company on TV, the slogan was “everyone is doing it, you should to”

The advertisement is simply persuading people to join in and subscribe to the mobile company, because misleads people that everyone is getting in on it and showing them in some way that they are the best.

Fatma Mansoor

Anonymous said...

Glittering Generality is attaching positive meanings to ideas or people, which is totally the opposite of Name Calling. In order to do that people use glittering words or phrases to make things or matters appeal to the world. Some of the words that are used are “motherhood”, “neighborhood”, “democracy” and “freedom”. These words stick to peoples minds and might change their views about certain topic or events. A good example is using the term “Freedom fighters” instead of “Terrorism”, which is the negative meaning that is used by the western media to make people think that are terrorists. Even when the US president used to call “the Gulf War” in his speeches “The Desert Storm”

Another good example when people called Princess Diana “The Princess of Heart”. These emotionally appealing words might touch very highly valued concepts and beliefs. Sometimes politics add certain words to make people believe them and to vote for them in campaigns. The paragraph below is a good example for using this device in speeches

"I believe in an America that's strong at home and respected in the world. I believe we can have a strong economy focused on good-paying jobs, a health care plan that reduces costs, an energy plan that frees us from Mideast oil, and I believe we can lead a strong military and strong alliances that keep America safe and secure." -- John Kerry

Hissa Al Sharif

Anonymous said...

Name Calling: Halima Seemba
Definition
As researched about name calling definition that: "Name calling occurs often in politics and wartime scenarios, but very seldom in advertising. It is another of the seven main techniques designated by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis. It is the use of derogatory language or words that carry a negative connotation when describing an enemy. The propaganda attempts to arouse prejudice among the public by labeling the target something that the public dislikes. Often, name calling is employed using sarcasm and ridicule, and shows up often in political cartoons or writings. When examining name calling propaganda, we should attempt to separate our feelings about the name and our feelings about the actual idea or proposal".
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Example & effectiveness evaluation
Example of name calling (globally and politically): The second gulf war at the time of Kuwiat emancipation name called by the (desert storm). Moreover, called by the Iraqi government by "Umm Al maariq", it was the name call reflecting the war techniques used and attach at that time. Sometimes name calling isn't the right reflection of the fact. Sometimes it reflects only the negative side of it. For example the name calling of Arabs or Muslims by terrorist. Its reflect the way the bad behavior of some Muslims like "Osama Bin laden" about the way of killing people and others who are Muslims in the customs of the long bear and the short clothe. This name calling made many problems for travelers both of Arabs and Muslims. Many foreign who meet those kinds of people terrify of even setting next to them.
For example think about the term "geek", it used to be an insult thrown at the brainiest members of a class, but the Silicon Valley set took it over and rewrote its meaning. With the help of Bill Gate's, billionaire geek extraordinaire, geek became chic and now means, "Those who make the world better and advance technology for all". Whatever insult you are called, look for a positive twist and make THAT twist what the word means when applied to you.
In conclusion name calling is one of the propaganda devices which play a main roll and it’s a label, which stick to a moment. It happens between people name call a product or something and name call globally a politic or an event. It affects audience so much especially the example of the Arabs and Muslims with the name call of terrorist they stick the idea about Islam and Muslims. On the other hand it is evaluating the something because of the target audience behaviors towards it.

Anonymous said...

Propaganda and name calling device:


Propaganda is basically a message that is sent through media channels such as; television commercials, news programs, magazine ads, and other things we read and see. These messages are chosen carefully to influence people’s opinion, behavior, emotions and attitudes. There are seven devices that propaganda designers use and name-calling is one of them.


Name calling technique was introduced by the institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA) in 1938. This technique works by linking a person, or and idea or an object to a negative symbol hoping that the receiver will reject or hate the person or the object or the opinion. This method played a powerful role in the history; it has ruined reputations, sent people to prisons and pushed some countries to war. Moreover, name-calling is mostly used in politics as well as in wartime and you can rarely find it in advertising. For the reason that this method needs a certain time and a certain frequency so it makes the effect that was designed for.

Name-calling involves bad names, for instance the word commie that relates to communism. This term “commie” was frequently used in the Cold War era where propaganda designers linked it to someone who had a democratic ideology or opinion with communism so they can make their arguments weak and less appealing to others. Another well-known name-calling that was attached to Arabs and Muslims is the word terrorist. We can also see that name-calling was used Long time ago during the Red Scare when Wisconsin Senator Joseph P. McCarthy accused many Americans of being "subversives." He used this tool so he can spread the fear.


Hamda Mohammed AL Basata
200222476

Anonymous said...

Transfer is one of the common techniques of propaganda. Transfer basically transforming an image to help sell the product, whether it is an image or a word. As for images, symbols that have an emotional appeal to the targeted audience may serve the idea of the product.

In media, commercials are tricky they trick your mind and your eyes they make you believe what you see. An image may represent a product by serving an idea of which comes within the concept of the product for instance Lurpak's transform of propaganda is the Danish cow. The cow is pampered and fed properly, therefore ha a good production.

Transfer needs repetition, as we repeat the same idea we start to relate it to the same product. Sony Ericson always relates its product to tunes and melody. It's transfer is dancing, singing and having fun…

Transfer is programming our subconscious mind to relate products with a certain kind of image or feeling such as joy, or relaxation and so forth.

The main concept behind this technique is to persuade people to love or hate a thing. It is not only used to products but also ideas

Anonymous said...

TESTIMONIALS:
The Institution of Propaganda Analysis (IPA) identified the testimonials as quotations or endorsements which attempt to connect a famous or respectable person (celebrity) with a product or item.
This form or device is closely connected to the transfer technique, in that an attempt is made to connect an agreeable person to another item.

Examples:
- George Qerdahy (The Million Winner) advertising a perfume which is also named after his name, which might also be connected to transfer.
- Anjelina Jolie (Actress) going to Africa with fundamental/charitable association to help poor people
- Ronaldeno (Football player) advertising for Pepsi
- Nansy Ajram (Singer) representing Damas jewellery ads and Coca-Cola

Effectiveness:
I think this form of propaganda has a worldwide effect over many people including different ages and cultures. Those effects might be positive or sometimes negative. I think that the negative effect of this kind of propaganda is that it will not endure or stay for a long time in people’s minds. In my point of view, since the advertising will stop, people might remember the celebrity but not the item or the product. In addition, whenever the celebrity represents more than one brand or product, the product will lose its value and the viewers will be satisfied of watching the same celebrity in different ads.
Another thing, for some people might seem that the products would be so expensive that only famous people and celebrities could buy them!
If we want to go through the positive effect of using the celebrity, it is clearly shown in one concise sentence: "Super Sizing" your sales!
So, getting and using testimonials is essential to increase the number of the product buyers’ and particularly among the young generation and teens.
There is also a quote that says, "Get someone else to blow your own horn and it will sound a thousand times louder than if you blew it yourself." This is so accurate.
You might ask why! But for some reason we like hearing from others and others do not mean any one! If we want to end with the best results in convincing people to buy an item, we have to choose and select the best celebrity which is really tough
Testimonials do something instantly that you alone cannot. They build trust. In addition, it reinforces our own thoughts and feelings about the person we are talking to.
What Others Say About Your Product Or Service Is Infinitely More Powerful Than Anything You Alone Can Say.
In conclusion, I think that's why getting and using testimonials is the second, crucial part of the "sacred trinity" for selling like mad.

Mariam

Anonymous said...

The Testimonial propaganda which base on the historical profile (person, country, accident, company) that it is containing testimonies from a people who witness a specific action happened in the past or it is talking about the present or the future actions depending on actions which had been already happened in the past (historical profile) and you can see that these kinds of propagandas have the very good influence on the population that it depends on the absolute facts ( if they are facts ) and it is so clear I think that the people treats the actions which happened already as absolute facts which cannot be changed or negotiated, like what you see in all presidential election campaigns in united states of America that the people depends on choosing the president by knowing his or her ( as I have heard the helary klinton intend to take part in the next presidential election ) historical profile and the core of this profile is the testimonies from the people who knows this person and material testimonies by showing his achievements as a testimonial material.

Badria Khalifa